absorption of manganese

Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine. Intestinal absorption of manganese in experimental malnutrition. Manganese is present in the highest quantities in whole foods, including sprouted grains, legumes or beans, certain nuts, and seeds. [, Finley JW, Penland JG, Pettit RE, Davis CD. In conclusion, fractional manganese absorption was approximately doubled by the dephytinization of soy formula but was not influenced by an increase in … Manganese is a trace mineral that contributes to several bodily functions. Manganese is a transition metal with a multifaceted array of industrial alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but the shared transporter of iron and manganese in the intestine might play a role [2]. Longitudinal changes of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase and other indexes of manganese and iron status in women. Li L, Yang X. J Nutr 1994;124:1060-4. Biomed Environ Sci 2017;30:482-91. However, it is not possible to determine to what extent, if any, the manganese alone affected bone density. Manganese source affects manganese transport and gene expression of divalent metal transporter 1 in the small intestine of broilers. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. *Breast milk, formula, and food should be the only sources of manganese for infants. Adsorption was performed at temperatures between approximately 20 and 350°C and pressures up to 10 5 Pa. Dissociation of CO which occurs rapidly on reduced iron oxide above 210°C and results in carbon deposition is hindered when manganese oxide is admixed. Abstract. [, Ekin S, Mert N, Gunduz H, Meral I. Serum sialic acid levels and selected mineral status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Iron-rich foods or supplements have been shown to lower your absorption of manganese. However, manganese toxicity has occurred in people working in such occupations as welding and mining who were exposed to high amounts of manganese from chronic inhalation of manganese dust [1,41]. NIH When too much available iron is consumed the body shuts down absorption to prevent iron toxicity, and manganese absorption is decreased. Manganese(0) carbonyl 98%; CAS Number: 10170-69-1; EC Number: 233-445-6; Synonym: Decacarbonyl dimanganese(0), Dimanganese(0) decacarbonyl; Linear Formula: C10Mn2O10; find Sigma-Aldrich-245267 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich. Excess dietary calcium and phosphorous decrease Mn absorption, but in contrast iron deficiency increases Mn absorption. Effects of feeding supplements of calcium, magnesium, manganese, selenium and potassium on dietary copper bioavailability of humans were investigated. Manganese metalloenzymes include manganese superoxide dismutase, arginase, phosphoenolpyruvate decarboxylase and glutamine synthetase. T Organic iron absorption by in situ ligated jejunal and ileal loops of broilers. Manganese dioxides (MOs) have excellent microwave absorption properties. Duodenal DMT1 mRNA and protein levels were higher (P < 0.05) in OM and OS groups than in OW and MnSO4 groups on day 28. Some conditions are known to impact Mg absorption, such as: 1. vomiting; 2. diarrhea; 3. diabetes mellitus; 4. emotional stress; 5. kidney disorders; 6. Mol Aspects Med 2005;26:353-62. Manganese might decrease how much antibiotic the body absorbs. In: A. Catharine Ross BC, Robert J. Cousins, Katherine L. Tucker, Thomas R. Ziegler ed. The laterite-coating manganese dioxide nanoparticle material (M2) prepared by the immersion method was used for the efficient removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Manganese supplementation improves mineral density of the spine and femur and serum osteocalcin in rats. Normal whole blood concentrations of manganese range from 4 to 15 mcg/L [1], but they are highly variable, and their utility as a status indicator is unclear [4]. [, Palacios C. The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46:621-8. Copper may also be absorbed in the stomach. Studies have shown that one needs to take almost 12 mg of manganese on a daily basis for optimum health. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:37-43. Manganese absorption was not influenced by an increase in the ascorbic acid from 625 mumol/L (110 mg/L) to 1250 mumol/L (220 mg/L): the geometric mean manganese absorption was 0.6% (range: 0.3-1.0%) and 0.6% (range: 0.3-1.1%), respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) on manganese ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) was studied. Updated: June 3, 2020 History of changes to this fact sheet, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements, My Dietary Supplement and Medicine Record, How To Evaluate Health Information on the Internet, NIH Consortium for Advancing Research on Botanical and Other Natural Products (CARBON) Program, Analytical Methods and Reference Materials (AMRM), Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID), Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS) Database. Most of it is found in the bone, liver, pancreas, and kidney cells. We determined the rates of Mn(II) adsorption, desorption, and oxidation by incubating slurries of natural anoxic sediment at 25°C and monitoring the concentration of manganese in the aqueous phase of the slurry. 1-14% women absorb more than men. I. Traces of grain counts along median transects of autoradiographs of cross sections of sterile (b) and non-sterile (a) barley roots after absorption for 24 h of '*Mn labelled 0.02 mM manganese sulphate. Unfortunately, iron competes with manganese for intestinal absorption. The adsorption and oxidation of thallium(I) by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO2) may have an impact on the removal of Tl from waters in engineered applications, as well as the fate and transport of Tl in natural waters. Humans absorb only about 1% to 5% of dietary manganese [2,5,7]. Manganese is an essential trace element that is naturally present in many foods and available as a dietary supplement. The human body contains approximately ten milligrams (10mg) of manganese, most of which is found in the liver, bones, and kidneys.This trace element is a cofactor for a number of important enzymes.Manganese metabolism is similar to that of iron.It is absorbed in the small intestines and while the absorption process is slow, the total absorption rate is exceptionally high – about 40%. Relative bioavailability of manganese in relation to proteinate and sulfate sources for broiler chickens from one to 20 d of age. After absorption, some manganese remains free, but most is bound to transferrin, albumin, and plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin. Learn more about its … Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54(6):1065-1070. Models for U(VI) adsorption over a broad range of chemical conditions can improve predictive capabilities for uranium transport in the subsurface. FDA required manufacturers to use these new labels starting in January 2020, but companies with annual sales of less than $10 million may continue to use the old labels that list a manganese DV of 2.0 mg until January 2021 [17,19]. Bone health Adsorption of lead by the manganese oxides was up to 40 times greater than that by the iron oxides, and lead was adsorbed more strongly than any of the other ions studied by all of the oxides except goethite. Forte G, Bocca B, Peruzzu A, Tolu F, Asara Y, Farace C, et al. The absorption of Mn was higher (P< 0.0002) by ligated ileal loops than by duodenal and je… Also, taking manganese by mouth along with other vitamins and minerals can promote growth in children who have low levels of manganese in developing countries. [, Finley JW, Johnson PE, Johnson LK. INTRODUCTION The Naturally occurring Manganese (II) (Mn+2) is commonly found in drinking water sources and is essential for human health at low concentrations. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001. NLM (2) Environmental Engineering Department, Zagazig University, Egypt. Intestinal manganese uptake is upregulated by iron deficiency and is thought to be mediated by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), an iron-regulated factor known to play a role in dietary iron absorption. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. Manganese is poorly absorbed in the Mn2+ form and is then oxidized to the Mn 3+ form for transport. Research in animals suggests that manganese supplementation might improve glucose tolerance, reduce oxidative stress, and improve endothelial dysfunction in diabetes [3], but clinical trials in humans are lacking. [, Finley JW, Davis CD. Manganese (Mn) is a trace metal commonly found in the environment. Would you like email updates of new search results? about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. While tea is a good source of manganese, the tannins present in tea may slightly reduce its absorption. Infants absorb higher proportions of manganese than adults; limited research shows that formula-fed infants retain about 20% of the manganese they consume [5]. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2008;37:564-7. This section focuses on two health areas in which manganese might be involved: bone health and diabetes. People with chronic liver disease have impaired manganese elimination in bile and are more susceptible to manganese neurotoxicity and other adverse effects of excess manganese intakes [4]. Manganese is an essential element involved in formation of bone. Institute of Medicine. It is found that HMO has an excellent Pb(II) adsorption performance, and an equilibrium adsorption capacity of 127 mg g −1 is expected under room conditions. Intake, serum concentrations, and urinary excretion of manganese by adult males. Join the ODS Email List. Keywords: Garcia-Aranda JA, Lifshitz F, Wapnir RA. Iron deficiency increases manganese absorption and can therefore exacerbate symptoms of manganese toxicity [2]. Scientists have examined whether associations exist between circulating manganese levels, bone mineral density, and osteoporosis in humans, but the evidence is very limited and inconsistent. Epub 2020 Oct 19. DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals. Epub 2020 Aug 8. Manganese absorption and retention by young women is associated with serum ferritin concentration. It is not found as a free element in nature; [not verified in body] it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. These values met or exceeded the manganese AI for all age groups. The body maintains stable tissue manganese concentrations through regulatory control of manganese absorption and excretion [5]. The ULs do not apply to individuals who are taking supplemental manganese under medical supervision. 2021 Jan;1868(1):118890. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2020.118890. Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA. … Zhang YN, Wang S, Huang XB, Li KC, Chen W, Ruan D, Xia WG, Wang SL, Abouelezz KFM, Zheng CT. Poult Sci. The deficiency of manganese may cause joint pains, poor bone health, and fertility problems. [, Chen P, Bornhorst J, Aschner M. Manganese metabolism in humans. Phytic acid has a similar effect on iron absorption, but vitamin C can overcome phytic acid’s effect on iron, whereas it does not do so for manganese . [, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Kazi N, Jamali MK, Arain MB, Jalbani N, et al. Supplements containing only manganese, or manganese with a few other nutrients, are also available, and most contain 5 to 20 mg manganese. Manganese doping has been shown to increase the UVA ∶ UVB absorption ratio of titania, reduce free radical generation rates by over 90%, and provide free radical scavenging behaviour. what inhibits manganese absorption. To study the influence of HFE deficiency on olfactory absorption, uptake of 54 MnCl 2 was examined in Hfe −/− and Hfe +/+ mice after intranasal instillation. The Total Diet Study (TDS) is an FDA program that monitors the nutrient content of typical foods consumed by the U.S population [22]. It is also involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate, cholesterol and amino acids. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. [, Bae YJ, Kim MH. Through the action of these enzymes, manganese is involved in amino acid, cholesterol, glucose, and carbohydrate metabolism; reactive oxygen species scavenging; bone formation; reproduction; and immune response [3-7]. In one small clinical trial, supplementation with calcium (1,000 mg) plus trace minerals (5 mg manganese, 15 mg zinc, and 2.5 mg copper) for 2 years improved spinal bone density compared with placebo in 59 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years) [31]. The results from the present study indicate that both DMT1 and FPN1 facilitated Mn absorption, however, the amino acid and peptide transporters might not be involved in the transport of the organic Mn chelates; organic Mn chelates with moderate and strong chelation strength, especially strong chelation strength, showed higher Mn absorption possibly due to enhanced DMT1 expression in the duodenum of broilers. Magnesium and selenium supplementation of diets resulted in increased apparent fecal losses of … However, these concentrations often do not correlate well with typical manganese intakes, so whether they are useful indicators of manganese status is not clear [4]. The mRNA levels of amino acid transporters [b0, +-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1) and excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)] were higher (P < 0.0005), and peptide transporter 1 was lower (P < 0.04) in the ileum than in the duodenum and jejunum; however, Mn source did not affect (P > 0.05) mRNA levels of amino acid and peptide transporters in the small intestine of broilers. [. Manganese absorbed by the leaves and stems increased with increasing manganese concentration in the applied solution, and with an increase in plant temperature and the length of time the manganese remained in solution on the leaf surface. Manganese exposure and cognitive deficits: a growing concern for manganese neurotoxicity. Saldanha MM, Araújo ICS, Triguineli MV, Vaz DP, Ferreira FNA, Albergaria JDS, Fontes DO, Lara LJC. Broilers fed diets supplemented with Mn had higher (P < 0.02) duodenal divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA levels and FPN1 protein level on both days 21 and 28 than those fed the control diet. Manganese deficiency and toxicity: are high or low dietary amounts of manganese cause for concern? Manganese absorption and retention were assessed during the last 30 d of each dietary period by using an oral dose of 54 Mn; balance was assessed simultaneously. [. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Zinc. Clin Chem Lab Med 2013;51:1555-61. However, iron deficiency can cause an increase in manganese absorption and vegans with iron deficiency should make sure they eat vitamin C at meals so that iron is absorbed instead of manganese. Manganese enters the portal circulation … Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:457-61. Manganese can interfere with copper absorption and can decrease copper levels. [, Davidsson L, Cederblad A, Lonnerdal B, Sandstrom B. Manganese absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas in humans. The interaction of ferritin status and dietary manganese affected 54 Mn absorption and biological half-life. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. Manganese overexposure is most frequently associated with manganism, a rare neurological disorder associated with excessive manganese ingestion or inhalation. We investigated possible changes in mechanisms of the intestinal absorption of Mn in rats malnourished with a low protein-low energy diet (M) for 4 weeks against controls fed a complete diet (C) during the same period. J Am Diet Assoc 1991;91:179-83. Kondakis XG, Makris N, Leotsinidis M, Prinou M, Papapetropoulos T. Possible health effects of high manganese concentration in drinking water. Pennington JA, Young BE. 2018 Dec 3;96(12):5198-5208. doi: 10.1093/jas/sky375. Estimation of dietary manganese requirement for laying duck breeders: effects on productive and reproductive performance, egg quality, tibial characteristics, and serum biochemical and antioxidant indices. The absorption capacity is the amount of metal ions in milligrams (mg) that can be adsorbed together with the adsorbent mass in grams. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:747-52. Collectively, the spectra probe local electronic structure and intermediate range crystal structure. We’ll tell you what manganese does, where to find it, and what it means if your levels are low. The FNB established manganese ULs for healthy individuals based on levels associated with whole-blood manganese concentrations above the normal range of 4 to 15 mcg/L and risk of neurotoxicity [4]. Additional symptoms include mania, insomnia, depression, delusions, anorexia, headaches, irritability, lower extremity weakness, changes in mood and short-term memory, altered reaction times, and reduced hand-eye coordination [1,41]. The Essential Element Manganese, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Diseases: Links and Interactions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. [. In conclusion, fractional manganese absorption was approximately doubled by the dephytinization of soy formula but was not influenced by an increase in … J Biol Sci 2004;4(2):95-9. (1999) ^ Manganese and calcium absorption and balance in young women fed diets with varying amounts of manganese and calcium. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1994;402:105-8. Also the coverage of the surface with CO is affected by the admixture of manganese oxide. Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Have a question? I. Manganese absorption and retention by young women is associated with serum ferritin concentration. Poult Sci. Manganese absorption can also benefit slightly from both alcohol and lecithin (Haas, 2003). The most recent report that used TDS data to estimate dietary manganese intakes, published in 1991, used TDS data from 1982 to 1989 [23]. Total diet study nutritional elements, 1982-1989. Biological trace element research 2008;122:1-18. As a cofactor for several enzymes, manganese is involved in glucose, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, and manganese deficiency might affect carbohydrate metabolism and cause abnormalities in glucose tolerance [3]. The silver catalyzed manganese dioxide of this invention can be formed into a shaped article of desired configuration, inserted into an electrochemical cell such as a battery, which is subsequently sealed, to absorb hydrogen gas evolved within the cell. [. Absorption of airborne manganese is an increasing concern due to neurotoxicity of the metal . Selected food sources of manganese are listed in Table 2. In dietary supplements, manganese is present in many different forms, including amino acid chelates (e.g., manganese bisglycinate chelate, manganese glycinate chelate, and manganese aspartate) [20]. This database contains label information from tens of thousands of dietary supplement products on the market. Manganese is taken up by the liver and other tissues, but the mechanism of this process is not well understood [1,2]. Dietary manganese intake and type of lipid do not affect clinical or neuropsychological measures in healthy young women. The role of trace minerals in osteoporosis. Manganese, an active component of the enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase, is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes, absorption of nutrients, wound healing, and development of bones in the body. Essential Trace Metal (Zinc, Manganese, Copper and Iron) Levels in Plants of Medicinal Importance. List 3 health effects associated with the intake of excessive manganese: In absorption spectroscopy the amount of light absorbed by a given sample at a specific wavelength is proportional to what two factors: Suppose you need to do an absorption spectroscopy experiment using an orange colored solution. Presented findings define the absorption of manganese as a complex physiological process. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace element contents of elderly males in Beijing urban area. The criterion used for comparison was the Mn content of hepatic portal vein plasma. γ-Fe 2 O 3 and MnO 2 were assigned to the Fe and Mn oxides, respectively. Copper, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, and zinc levels in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. Am J Clin Nutr. Factors that decrease the absorption of manganese: High doses of calcium, iron, magnesium and phosphorus. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2018;23:1655-79. The results from the present study indicate that both DMT1 and FPN1 facilitated Mn absorption, however, the amino acid and peptide transporters might not be involved in the transport of the organic Mn chelates; organic Mn chelates with moderate and strong chelation strength, especially strong chelation strength, showed higher Mn absorption possibly due to enhanced DMT1 expression in the duodenum … Manganese absorption is very low, from 1 to 5% . Manganese. Very little is excreted in urine. [, Li XT, Yu PF, Gao Y, Guo WH, Wang J, Liu X, et al. Ask ODS This condition shows that the adsorption capacity was toward the equilibrium point. No clinical trials have evaluated the effects of manganese supplementation alone on bone health. [, Saltman PD, Strause LG. Buchman AR. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which provides dietary intake data for most nutrients, does not include manganese [21]. Plays a Role in Blood Sugar Regulation. View abstract. Absorption of manganese by plants 99 EDiaermis Stele Eoidermis Fig. More research is needed to determine whether manganese supplementation affects bone health in humans. Our body contains 20 mg of Mn, mainly concentrated in the liver, bones, kidneys, and pancreas. In addition, no associations between plasma manganese levels and bone mineral density were observed in a study of 90 men aged 50 to 80 years [30]. In one study, 10 women with osteoporosis (mean age, 69.3 years) had lower serum manganese levels (20 mcg/L) than 20 women (mean age, 64.5 years) who did not have osteoporosis (40 mcg/L) [27]. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8:19250-7. The enhanced adsorption of TC was dominated by the loaded γ-Fe 2 O 3 and MnO 2.According to Akaike-Information-Criteria evaluation, Elovich kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models could best describe the adsorption … A portion of the accumulated manganese appears to be held by adsorption at the leaf surface. BioFactors (Oxford, England) 1999;10:15-24. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) histidine citrate. Note– according to studies, iron status is linked with the amount of Mn absorbed from a meal. Manganese (Mn) plays an important role in a number of physiologic processes as a constituent of multiple enzymes and an activator of other enzymes (2). [, Finley JW. Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide. Lu L, Zhang L, Li X, Liao X, Zhang L, Luo X. J Anim Sci. Manganese absorption can also benefit slightly from both alcohol and lecithin (Haas, 2003). Manganese is a chemical element with the symbol Mn and atomic number 25. The human body contains about 10 to 20 mg manganese, of which 25% to 40% is in bone [1,2]. Not all multivitamin/mineral supplements contain manganese, but those that do typically provide 1.0 to 4.5 mg manganese [20]. After absorption, some manganese remains free, but most is bound to transferrin, albumin, and plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin. Copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium status and complications of diabetes mellitus. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. [Bioavailabilities of manganese sources based on heart manganese-containing superoxide dismutase gene expression for broilers]. 25 Adsorption of Iron and Manganese Ions Using Low-cost Materials as Adsorbents Mamdouh M. Nassar1*, Kamal T. Ewida2, Ebrahiem E. Ebrahiem1, Yehia H. Magdy1 and Mansour H. Mheaedi2(1) Chemical Engineering Department, El-Minia University, El Minia, Egypt. Food and Nutrition Board. [, Shan Z, Chen S, Sun T, Luo C, Guo Y, Yu X, et al. The results show that Tl was adsorbed by nMnO2 within 15 min at pH 7.0. amino acid and peptide transporter; broiler; divalent metal transporter 1; ferroportin 1; manganese absorption. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended amounts.". The mobility of hexavalent uranium in soil and groundwater is strongly governed by adsorption to mineral surfaces. Crohn’s disease; 7. excessive intake of alcoholic beverages; 8. t… Conversely, in a case-control study in Sardinia of 192 adults with type 1 diabetes (mean age 48.8 years), 68 adults with type 2 diabetes (mean age 68.4 years), and 59 adults without diabetes (mean age 57.2 years), median blood concentrations of manganese were lower in those with either type 1 (8.62 mcg/L) or type 2 diabetes (10.7 mcg/L) than in those who did not have diabetes (14.2 mcg/L) [35]. Manganese appears to play a role in regulating blood sugar. Manganese is absorbed in the small intestine through an active transport system and, possibly, through diffusion when intakes are high . Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:238-44. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of manganese (Mn) source on Mn absorption and expressions of Mn, amino acid, and peptide transporters in the small intestine of broilers. Dietary iron intakes and iron status (measured by serum ferritin concentration) appear to be inversely associated with manganese absorption [14,15]. Results: Dietary manganese did not affect manganese status, but high serum ferritin depressed arginase activity. Compared with the middle tertile of plasma manganese concentration (4.21–6.84 mcg/L), those in the lowest tertile (≤4.21 mcg/L) were 1.89 times more likely, and those in the highest tertile (≥6.84 mcg/L) were 1.56 times more likely, to have type 2 diabetes. No evidence shows manganese toxicity from high dietary manganese intakes [40]. ^ Roels HA1, et al. 11th ed. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics. Environ Health Perspect 2016;124:1876-81. Includes a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products.
absorption of manganese 2021